Cyril W.Smith, Ph.D.
Electromagnetic fields and the Endocrine System
The endocrine system is the system of glands that regulates the function of our body.This electrical phenomena play a decisive role.This article describes the relationship between electromagnetic effects and excretion function of glands, and the activation of neurosecretie.The research material in this area is called.The first evidence of the relationship between electromagnetism and the endocrine system came from the patients' sensitivity to electric fields in their environment.50% of these findings indicate involvement of the diencefalon with an impaired response of the integrated endocrine part of the autonomic nervous system.Below are the reasons why electromagnetic fields covered by this single neuro-bio-chemical information communication and freezes.
The diencefalon connects the mesencephalon with the hemispheres of the cerebrum.The nerves of the eye and the retina from the Diencefalon.The diencefalon contains the thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus.Epithalamus lies in the pineal gland, which is deeply involved in eektromagnetische fields.This is discussed below.
The cerebellum plays a feedback / stabilization function in lchaam, and has a rhythm of 150-300 Hz, 200 ov, together with a lower 1-2 kHz component.
The thalamus consists of nerve cells to and from the cortex, this finding information feedback network location.The layer of Purkinje cells in the cortex allow large groups of cells directly by sending an "electric avalanche phenomena.Purkinje cells respond to the indoleamine in the pineal gland by microelektroforese .Their rhythmic response to melatonin in the pineal gland eliminated by the presence of magnetic fields .
The Thalanus has connections with the N Trigenimus.Studies in animals have found while sensitivity to magnetic field.[4.5].Besides the Thalamus is the reukcetrum, and there is a connection to the visual system.
There are afferents from the thalamus to the hypothalamus, and efferent paths of the dorsal longitudnale fascisculus thalamus and hypothalamus which are connected.
The hypothalamus is related to the pineal gland and the endocrine system, the cortex and multiple functions of the autonomous zenuwstelsel.Elektrostimulatie hypothalamis in rats blokkeertr melatonin synthesis .The hypothalamus regulates the release of pain apple sympatsch gland hormones and the nervous system and parasymatisch.
In animals indicates eektrische stimulation of the front of the hypothalamus an increase in activity sympatischge: pupiolverwijding, and it is standing.In other areas of the hypothalamus provides electrical stimulation changes blood pressure and respiration s (and to decrease), and parasympathetic effects such as drowsiness, drooling, glow, defecation and urination.
Temperature regulation is also host to find.Sweat and blood circulation.
There is one hanging at the back of center in the hypothalamus, where the production of heat and heat retention regulated.
The goat does stimulation of the hypothalamus to the back of heavy drinking, in animals here is the center for hunger and satiety.
The hippocampus has its own electrical system, with neuronal connections to the hypothalamus, which returns a doorvernbindingheeft to the pineal gland with and thereby influence the remiung toemame the hormoale nsysteem.In vitro reduces melatonin - from the pineal gland - a hippocampal neurons from an animal (guinea pig)..
2.2 The Pineal Gland
In 1980 appeared the first publications on surging flood of artificial weak magnetic fields, the size of the Earth's magnetic field may affect the activity of the cells of the pineal gland..They would also respond to fluctuations caused by sunspot activity, geomagnetism.Since then, the pineal gland and melati none received the most attention in dt field.
The pineal gland  seems very sensitive to environmental influences, especially light and other electromagnetic fields, noise, temperature and odor, but also steroids and noradrenaline (epinephrine).Control is by sympathetic bundles of the autonomic nervous system.The sympatho-adrenal system is sensitive to magnetiusche fields and the autonomic nervous system, which is strongly influenced by electromagnetism.
12 years ago investigated and Semm Vollrathhun research on the electro physiologist of the pineal gland, expanding their investigation beyond that of circadian rhythms  and sensitivity .Se found that magnetic fuctuaties in the order of that of the Earth's magnetic field influenced the pain apple glands .Since then, most work in this area done by Semm and staff of the University of Mainz, and Reiter and employees of the University of Texas.
In mammals, the electrical activity of the pineal gland influenced by sexhormoonproductie , melatonin and putative transmitters , thyroid hormones and parathormone , indoleamine , pineal indoles , stimulation of the cervical sympathtische ganglia and tosteron .In studies of birds has been found that the electric patient response of the pineal gland is related to light , pineal indoles and putative transmitters .
The pineal gland contains an indole, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine)  and the enzymes responsible for its synthesis of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine).Melatonin get fired or the chemical form of "dark" mentioned.It passes through cell membranes volts, and it is found in all body fluids .
The enzyme that the final step in the synthesis melationine catalyses (Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase) is found only in the pineal gland.Its activity decreases in the light, and disappears after sympathectomy.The pineal gland raises a spontaneous electrical activiteir in the range of 1 to 65 [Hz].Innervation comes from the CNS (Central Nervous System) [25,26,27,28] using the stem of the pineal gland  but also of the ANS (Autonomic Nervous System).It is unlikely that an individual neuron simultaneously receives impulses from both sources .The pineal gland also raises a neural connection from the eyes.In birds, there are magnetic cells in their visual system .
The suprachiasmatic nuclei have an endogenous circadian clock.This generates the rhythm of the pineal gland melatonin synthesis, with a periodicity of slightly more than 24-hours.The day / night (light / dark) ritrme Area synchronizes it to exactly 24 hours.Long nights lead to increased nocturnal melatonin levels.
Elektromegnetische fields influence the production of melatonin by the pineal gland may affect our health , as are the Earth's magnetic field .There are directional field effects [32-34].In the rat magnetic fields affect the secretory activity of the pineal gland , the serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity , and disrupt the rhythmic response of Purkinje cells to melatonin .
Reiter studied the melatonin rhythms of the pineal gland [37.38] and described the pineal gland as a mediator between the environment and the endocrine system , but in our day / night environment and the endocrine system [40.41].ELF (Extra Low Frequency) fields influence the pineal gland [42-46], as well as visual stimuli and light [47-51].The pineal gland is also involved in magnetic susceptibility [52-54] and circadian rhythms .
Weaver,  showed that a 10 Hz, 2.5 V / m AC field can act as a metronome "for the circadian rhythm in people who live underground, outside the geomagnetic rhythms result, a 23-hour rhythm imposed, for the sleep/ wake rhythm as well as the body core temperature, something no other 'metronome' can.
3.Nervous system and endocrine system 
The higher body formed by an interplay between the nervous and endocrine system.The nervous system provides direct bio-information through nerve channels to targeted body areas.In vertebrate nervous system is well developed in the form of the brains and spinal cord.Specialized neurons connect other neurons, and receptor activation and cells.
Originally both excitatory neurons and secretory, but most excitatory neurons are developed.In response to stimuli, they give off an electrical pulse with high speed is transmitted by nerve cells to other tissues.Because a neuron generates only one kind of pulse is time-coded and sequentially passed to the effector, as in a fax machine.The initial secretory function is still evident in the nerve endings as the release of neurotransmitters.Recent research shows that the above model is simplified: within neurons is a humoral transmission in both directions.
Some neurons are specially designed for neurosecretie.They produce chemical-specific media (neuro-hormones).These chemical messengers from the fiber ends are issued to bodily fluids and can thus (local humoral) directed effect on other cells.Such cells are excitatory, but that is only secondary.The neurohormones have a larger but slower effect as humoral transfer is simultaneously distributed over a larger area.The properties of the neurosecretory system lie in between that of the neuronal system and the humoral (endocrine) system.
Invertebrates have a small body and organization simple system in which the regulation is provided by neurons.However, in more complex animals with larger bodies is a higher organization for integration and maintenance of physiological functions.The nervous system developed the ability to all bodily processes in detailed regulations.Bandwidth of the order of the light frequencies (100 THz) is necessary to a cell about the environment via serial communication processes.
Therefore, a second system needed, the endocrine system.Compared to invertebrates, the endocrine system in vertebrates largely developed.Their function is the preparation and distribution of specific chemical media (hormones).The endocrine system developed with the circulatory system, the distribution of hormones throughout the body provides.Hormones are active in high dilutions (10 -6 to 10 -10 g / ml).The amount of information without loss through the same circulation system may be disclosed only limited by the number of possible unique biochemical variations.Due to differences in tissue sensitivity, it is possible to selectively targeted body areas to control.Although the transfer of information via hormones subject to significant delays, in comparison with neuronal transmission, however it has a huge high effective information transfer by the continuous number of parallel signals.The endocrine system can be compared to a mail delivery.
The neuronal system and endocrine system are not always independent.Hormonal information can be converted into neural information, and vice versa: neuronal impulses can lead to chemical signals.Furthermore, neurons are excited by hormones, while conversely the secretion of hormones by neuronal impulses to endocrine organs can be arranged.
The actriviteit of neurocrien system (neuronal and endocrine system together) can be controlled by: endogenous information from the genes, the internal environment (blood chemistry, metabolites, osmotic pressure, temperature, and electromagnetic signals related to endogenous information).
The activity of the nervous and endocrine systems May be modified by the following: endogenous information provided by the genes, the status of internal and external environments (blood composition, nutrients, metabolites, Osmotic pressure, temperature, electro-magnetic signals similar to endogenous information)and the actual encoded information of either the neuronal or endocrine system.
Especially the following neuroendocrine are important: the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus, adrenal medulla, and pineal gland.In higher animals, the higher order control system made possible by the relationship and cooperation between the nervous and glandular system through the regulatory networks of neurocriensysteem .Of these mathematical models have been made .The neurocriensysteem responds to electromagnetic fields .
4.ENDOCRINE ORGANS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSITIVITY
Endocrine glands have no openings or pipes to our environment.Their secretions contain hormones that are released into the bloodstream and effect or organs or tissue at a distance because they are transmitted through the humoral system.This body is a bio-communication mechanism that is complementary to the nervous system.
The pituitary gland has two parts.The neurohypophyse (rear) is regulated by the hypothalamus, nerve connections and hormonal channels.Two hormones are secreted.Probably they are produced in the neurosecretory nerves between the hypothalamus and pituitary.Such sescernerende nerves form a link between neuronal and humoral regulatriesysteem.
The adenohypophyse (front) separates trophic hormones via the venous system.These regulate the growth and activity of the body as a whole.Or those of other endocrine glands.There is no neural connection to the hypothalamus.
A series of portal vessels connecting the capillary network in the hypothalamus with the anterior pituitary.The release of hormones from the anterior pituitary is thus regulated through a series of chemical "releasing factors".
The thyroid gland is unique: it saves the active hormone in vesicles, all other nodes use secretiecellen.There are studies of the electrical response of pineal cells to thyroid hormones .
The parathyroid gland maintains the blood calcium levels by regulating the renal tubules.Regulation is deemed to be in direct relation to the calcium in the blood, but not the pituitary.Weak electromagnetic fields have an effect on parathyroid hormone-related signal transduction by G proteins 
4.4 Adrenal gland (suprarenal gland)
The biijnierkern (medulla) raises a sympathetic and harmonious zenuwinnervatie activity reinforces the tone of the sympathetic nervous system in licheem.The hormones secreted here are noradrenaline (norepinephrine), the chemical transmitters in the nervous system sympathetishe, and adrenaline (epinephrine) that the heart muscle and blood vessels dilate and ready for a fight / flight response.These two hormones regulate many systems, they are also involved in EHS.They dilate the oogpupil, make our hair stand up, relax the bronchioles and so enhance the airways, they reduce digestion and narrowing the bowel sphincter, inhibit the bladder muscles, increase blood pressure, narrowing the majority of arterioles and veins, except the heart vessels they dilate,and strengthens cardiac activity.Cloned into a nerve cell line, the H 3-noradrenaline release enhanced by weak pulsed magnetic fields with a response time of less than 15 minutes .
4.5 Gonads (ovaries and testes)
The gonads produce the sex hormones - androgens, estrogens and progesterone.These can the electrical activity of the pineal gland affect [14.20].The brains-pituitary-gonadal system is considered a eregulatiesysteem .
The pancreas is both an endocrine gland - with respect to insulin production - but also an exocrine gland - which involves the production of pancreatic juices that are delivered to the duodenum.The pancreas is a parasympathetic innervation, increased parasympathetic activity increases the secretion of pancreatic enzymes.
The placenta functions both as food and as a glandular organ.
5.AUTONOMOUS NERVOUS SYSTEM
Activation of the ANS (autonomic nervous selsel) is typically regulated by nuclei in the medulla, hypothalamus and cerebellum.The hypothalamus and the limbic system or cerebral cortex constitute the "visceral brain" that regulates the autonomic functions.Especially those of emotions, fear and sadness.
The sympathetic nervous system is active at times of stress and activity.The parasympathetic system raises to deal with processes of relief and relaxation.Some systems have both a sympathetic and a parasympathetic innervation.Oogpupil widens by the increase in sympathetishe activity and contraction at elevated parasympathetic button activities.This effect is the basis of the IRISCORDER - pupillografisch a measure that is used in studies of patients to monitor stress caused by electromagnetic fields and chemical substances in the environment .
6.EVIDENCE FOR HYPERSENSITIVITY ELECTROMAGNETISHE
Afterthought of research done by the author to peti├źnten with electrical hypersensitivity, , it seems that half of the reported symptoms are usually due to unusual reactions diencefalon and integrated autonomic regulation of the endocrine system.For 120 patients, there were a total of 661 frequencies between 1.8 Hz and 300 Hz corresponding to the provocation of symptoms that can be attributed to the autonomic nervous system regulation of the hypothalamus.300 Hz is the afkapfrequentie because this is the upper limit of the ELF frequency band.This range includes specific biologically active frequencies, and the characteristic symptoms tend to repeat when the triggering frequency is increased .
Figure 1 shows the frequency counts in the form of a histogram for the Star symptoms in each band (┬▒ 10%).Rose D.Baker University of Salford did this statistical survey, which is found in the appendix.An output test confirmed that the symptom does not count stochasties on the frequencies were divided.The frequency of 2 Hz and 50 Hz had significantly abnormal counts.Also showed that the symptom counts were much higher than the average for sub-harmonics and harmonics of 50 Hz power in England.
Symptoms of the two significant frequencies were found to correspond to the autonomic control from the hypothalamus, a few others seem to be equally attributed to the adrenal medulla.Obviously, this was the starting assumption in selecting these frequencies, in the design of the study, but after checking the original measurements bl; eef conclusion unchanged.
No symptoms dominated by one or the other frequency.2 Hz for the main complaints were: temperature regulation, eyes, heart and respiration, while the 50 - Hz predominantly to skeletal muscle pain and involuntary movements.
Similar research in the USA would show whether the 60 Hz mains frequency fan as other symptoms, or whether the symptoms are a feature of acquired hypersensitivity by electric stress of a specific regulatory system.It is possible that the 2 Hz sensitivity indicates a fundamental resonance frequency of this particular regulation system.
Celoscillaties are widespread in nature , their synchronization by neuro-hormonal and electrical stimuli also.Fr÷hlich  suggested that coherent excitation in biological systems occurs.If so there will be a lower limit under which consistency has not been reached, with a sensitivity window, with an upper limit after which coherence breaks.It is therefore significant that in the pineal gland of the rat there is no response to a strong magnetic field (0.14 Tesla, NMR Research) on melatonin synthesis, while this is the case for earth magnetic field strengths .Similar are the seemingly conflicting studies that suggest that "weak red light has no effect on pineal gland function"  while "the magnetic field effect on melatonin synthesis may be stronger by weak red light" .It provides evidence for the existence of a sensitivity window, and thus the phenomenon of coherence.
The endocrine system is part of a regulatory system consisting of including the cerebral cortex, the autonomic nervous system, and diencefalon.Typically, a control system with closed loops oorzaak0 and effect are replaced by stability and instability.The question is which mathematical formulas that control system can be described in detail.
Figure 2 shows the electromagnetic fields interaction and possible feedback paths of the bio-control scheme.In the study patients with similar electromagnetic hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields near a feedback circuit to have disturbed: cortex - autonomic nervous system - hypothalamus - cortex.Such a neural chain with regard to a body corresponds to the short response time, in the order of seconds.This type of research does not detect slow hormonal disturbances.
The most common hypersensitivity that was discussed concerned the pineal gland and melatonin in the back loop: pineal gland - thalamus (with both melatonin and neural channels) - hypothalamus (directly or through the cerebral cortex) - autonomic nervous system - pineal gland.
If the phase shift in a loop reaches 360 degrees, and the gain is greater than one, the natural frequency oscillations arise, maintain themselves with similar frequencies.
Providing a long time constant eliminates the 360 ┬░ phase rotation.This is exactly what the endocrine system delivers.With electrical signals and high gain, it is difficult to avoid the instabilities and opslingeringen resulting from low power feedback.By chemical messengers, the feedback regulated by the timescale of the chemical system in which the chemical pathways are determined by the spontaneous breaking of molecular bonds due to thermal agitation, which is negligible for stable connections.Neurocriensysteem It has the advantage of the speed of a neural network, such as the stability afforded by the hormonal feedback.Germany also provides a greater bandwidth capacity for a parallel signals than by the neuronal system can be offered.
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ANALYSIS OF DATA OR TESTS ON ELECTROMAGNETICALLY HYPER SENSITIVE PATIENT
Centre for OR & Applied Statistics,
Department of Mathematics & Computer Science,
University of Salford, Salford, M5 4wt, U.K.
In testing the statistical significance of this data, it is Necessary to be aware of the multiple comparisons problem '.For example, if the heights of 29 peaks are Tested for significant departures from the mean, 5% or 29 (ie, More Than One) are expected to Appear significantly high or low at a significance level of 0.05.
An initial test thats the Data Were not Randomly distributed among the 10% ┬▒ Various categories of frequencies were Performed.For this, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test gift or a p-value 0.0004 showing thats the response was found non-random (ie not evenly distributed among all frequency bands) at a significance level of 0.1%.This test HAS the advantage of a chi-squared test, thats the ordering of the responses by frequency is preserved, so That Several adjacent frequencies with Slightly raised levels of response (a broad low peak in response) Could Be Regarded As a significant departure from randomness.This test is described by Bradley , it is impracticable Pointed Out That when 'tied' observations occure, the p-value Calculated from the usual large sample from tables or formula is too large.
This probability is the significance level or p-value of the Largest peak or trough.
Monte-Carlo simulations Were Carried Out to calculate probabilities thesis.The results were:
2 62 Hz responses p-value <0.0001
50 Hz 42 0011
9 October 0096 Hz
2.5 Hz 37 0099
Beyond That, Further responses May well be abnormal, but this can not be statistically Established from thesis data.
1.Bradley, JV."Distribution-free statistical tests.New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 296-304, 1968.
CAPTION FOR FIGURES
Reports of weak magnetic field effects on the Pineal Gland are surveyed.
Most hormone systems are controlled by feedback.The Nervous System The Endocrine compl├©ments distribution system acting through the circulation with high chemical specificity.Symptoms Arising from tests on electromagnetically hyper sensitive pati├źnten are Investigated for endocrine system involvement.
Cyril W.Smith, Ph.D.
University of Salford, Salford M5 4wt, England.
Dr.Cyril W.The results of measurements on electromagnetically hyper sensitive pati├źnten discussed in the present paper Were Obtained in cooperative work with Dr..Jean Monro, The Breakspear Hospital, Hemel Hempstead, UK.
Rose D.Paul D.