Vanessa Hill & Peter Rowlands SIGLogo(t)

Vanessa Hill & Peter Rowlands,
The Code of Nature - Shapes of Life

Why do cells not more than 20 basic amino acids in the biosynthesis of protein?DNA can be much more.The biology seems to use a mathematical logic.In geometric shapes that link should be seen.

In nature, using 20 cells for amino acids to build proteins, the DNA code can make it 64, the number of possible triplets on the basis of its four bases.Why is that?There are hundreds of amino acids known, where only 20 cells that use?
Other questions arise: why did four DNA building blocks, two spirals, and why it seems important for the direction of the DNA and protein molecules that form?We watched them in mathematics or a certificate could be found, and arrived at the properties of tetrahedra, cubi, star tetrahedron and octahedrons.In combination with quantum physicist Peter Rowlands became clear that the determinant associated in quantum mechanics can be found.This made it possible to find a geometric representation of a universal principle which we write, rewrite, not only in nature but also in physics found.It seems a basic mechanism at every level is to find consistency, and between, ever higher orders of organization.It seems the logic for forms of life.

Biological systems are very orderly, even though they operate at the edge of chaos (free choice).Non-living systems lose that order, and fall apart.Biology is a balance between order and chaos (fixed forms and free choice), where chaos wins if the order is not actively formed.Therefore they should provide information (shaping) optimally.This appears the case: the millions of genetic codes theoretically possible, there is only one, perhaps, more efficient than the code used in the body (Freeland & Hurst, 1998, 2000).Our genetic inheritance is not the result of chance.It has a logic which we can find at other levels of natural organization, such as, especially, in physics and mathematics are described.These forms (w.w.) consistency.

DNA, transcription and translation
DNA consists of 4 April deoxyribonuclede-acid bases (dNTPs): A, T, G and C.
Two are purines (A and G) and two are pyrimidines (T and C).A pairing with T (double bond) and G with C (triple bond) that the double helix structure of DNA is formed.The purines (A and G), thus linking the pyrimidines (T and C respectively).
The transcription of DNA unzip the set of single-stranded DNA spirals, after which the enzyme RNA polymerase to make copies of an inverted, with an opposite direction.Taking in all the copy deoxyribonucleide acids replaced by ribonucleide acid bases A, U, G and C, containing the T's replaced by U's.The message (mRNA) that is created is then decoded by ribosomes a protein machine (built from 65% rRNA and 35% protein) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in the process known as "translation".The translation of mRNA into protein occurs by reading the RNA bases, in groups of three: the codon triplets.On the basis of codon triplets 3, 4 with bases are 4 ³ (64) combinations.In nature, however, only 20 used.
In completing the translation is a chain of amino acids formed, the protein.
In addition, each identified specific amino acid: tRNA contains an "anticodon" which it identifies a specific codon in mRNA.The differences in the amino acids are very important.In the following we see that it is based.


Plato described five types of geometric coherence: the tetrahedron (4 faces and tops), cube (6 faces, 8 peaks), octahedron (eight faces and tops), dodecahedron (12 faces and tops) and the icosahedron (20 faces and tops).These are the five resonance forms of a sphere.The cube and octahedron are each other's counterpart, the dodecahedron and icosahedron are opposite, and the tetrahedron is its own complement.5 These forms fit into each other indefinitely, see Figure 1.These forms are too complex to use linked in a clear way of showing.

Figure 1.The 5 Forms of Plato

DNA and the Forms of Plato

DNA has a consistency in the forms of Plato's understandable.The four bases of DNA (A, T, G and C) can be represented as the vertices of a tetrahedron (Fig. 2).The tetrahedron is thus set as the form of information, all possible combinations of codon triplets (4 ³ = 64) as found in single-stranded DNA or mRNA (U replaces T) with a rotation.Double Strand DNA wee rte given by a second tetrahedron.Together that is a star tetrahedron, where the two rotation together.In this form we can look to the four base pairs in the correct context (A with T and G with C) as we find in the double strand (Fig. 2).Another form to display it as the three corners of a cube (Rowlands & Hill, 2006).

Figure 2.The geometric consistency of single-and double-stranded DNA

Table 1.The 64 triplets, 20 amino acids and stop / start
codons of the genetic code.

4 Bases therefore 64 (4 ³) combinations.Nature uses them only 20 (amino acids) in the formation of protein: Table 1 shows that encoded by triplets 1 to 6.(A triplet of codons, we show in the shape of a triangle.) The forms of Plato are piling, so are the tetrahedra (Fig. 3).Folder on its complex linked to a simpler way to understand: as forms of coherence.
A second order tetrahedron consists of four tetrahedra and an octahedron.A third order tetrahedron consists of four 10 tetrahedra and octahedra.We propose that every plane triangle a triplet proposes, represents an octahedron 8 different triplets.We propose that each aminnozuur represents an octahedron, it represents a:
• 2nd order tetrahedron: codon 8 triplets, and 4 amino acids
• 3rd order tetrahedron: codon 32 triplets and 10 amino acids.

In a double helix with two rotation double these values, the shape is that of a star tetrahedron (Fig. 3):
• 2nd order star tetrahedron: codon 16 triplets and 8 amino acids
• 3rd order star tetrahedron: codon 64 triplets and 20 amino acids.

In the third order, star tetrahedron, we see the right consistency of triplets of the four bases, to form the number of amino acids, as we find in nature in the form of protein.

Figure 3.Higher order tetrahedra and the genetic code.

Figure 4 shows the relationship between tetrahedra and octahedra in the star shape.Remarkably, the fractal feature of these diagrams, showing for the construction of consistency in the nature of the repetition of star / octahedron / cube.

Figure 4.Planning in the star tetrahedron.A.the tetrahedra, B. octahedrons.

The aim of the codon triplets to give their place to know which amino acid is represented by each tetrahedron (Figure 11).
Figure 5.Cube stacking and placement of codon triplets

Each teraëder is defined by a base at a vertex.The tetrahedrons together into a cube, where the same bases in the corners meet.
UUU = phenylalanine (PHE)
GGG = glycine (GLY)
AAA = lysine (LYS)
CCC = proline (PRO)
Each triplet codon that represents an amino acid form has a mirror hanging against the side of the octahedron.Such complementarity is to explore further.Algebra provides an usable Description.
Creation seems to be related to a specific form of algebra: the write-rewrite system (Rowlands & Diaz, 2005).Formation and forms are in it together, as we see in DNA replication (a write-rewrite operation).In mathematics, this can now be described in terms of a dynamic balance around the zero state.For this some form of algebra.The following summarize this framework.Since this algebra is relevant to substantiate, without the need within this text do understand it is presented as a figure in her own picture frame.It is a masterpiece in itself, so that explicit to describe.(See box).

FRAMEWORK (showing that it is meant as an illustration)
Boxes and Rens: rock out: this is the basic mathematics of the future, great, but too complex for the readers.Hence the idea of if and artwork to present as a figure in a stylish picture frame, which intuitively indicates the quality in which the text may have just read, and the formula as an art form to understand.If a figure on a page or less, compared with Figure 7?.

There Seems To Be Evidence That a universal rewrite system Operates in kind at a Fundamental level.5-6 Essentially, this masseuses a create / preservation process to Generate Its Own system or mathematical structure, based only on the condition permanently or zero Totality, andAny Assumed not on pre-existing number system or algebra.A convenient, but not unique, mathematical representation of this structure is through an infinite Clifford algebra, quaternion or nested systems (i1, j1, k1, i2, j2, k2, etc.), so thats the Successive units Introduced at orders 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 are scalar, pseudo Calar, quaternion, multivariate vector (or complexified quaternion), double quaternion, quaternion and multivariate vector, with respective multiplication factors or (1, -1), (1, i1), (1, j1), (1, i2), (1, j2), (1, i3).Here, i1, j1 and i1j1 represents the quaternion operators i, j, k, the incomplete set of quaternion represents entry i3 the complex number i, while the products II2, ij2 ii2j2 and become the multivariate vector units i, j, k
Mathematically, the series continues to infinity, with (1, J3), (1, I4), etc., but, Physically, we note the special significance of order 64, Which their guests the algebra associated with the Fundamental physical state, the fermion, That is the Dirac algebra or gamma matrices.This is the order Needed to Incorporate the component orders 2, 4, 8 and 16 shaft Identifiable units, and in physics, thesis Identifiable orders are respectively with the Fundamental physical parameters mass, time, and space charge.At this level, we observe, uniquely, an infinite number of solutions nilpotent, Which, by squaring to zero, zero Totality Immediately produce the alphabet at this and all subsequent component levels, and are distinguishable from eachother by Their Algebraic higher order coefficients.Essentially, the combination of
space-time mass charge
Calar pseudo scalar vector quaternion
i j i j i k 1 k
Requires an algebra or 64 units (include + and - signs), but in the nilpotent structure we compactify thesis writing five composite units (equivalent to the gamma matrices)
I ii ij I 1 yes)
Which are sufficient is to generate the Dirac Entire group, and associate with theses new (composite) physical parameters, Which we describe as energy (E), three components of momentum (p) and residual mass (m).The nilpotent structure

The Fundamentals unit now represents entry of physics, the fermionic state.In quantum mechanics, the expression (  ike ip 1 jm) represents Either can-or amplitude and the nilpotent operator equation


HAS multiple meanings, include Pauli exclusion.Also we can take - (  ike ip 1 jm) as the total 'vacuum' state, left by extracting from the fermion zero Totality, so That equation (b) Also thats the implies fermion can-only be defined at the sametime asITS vacuum state, and thats the combination MEANS That defines Each Its Own fermion zero Totality Universe.
The creation of the nilpotent algebra by the compactification process Outlined in (a) has many important cons©quences.Apart from Introducing discrete ness to Otherwise Continuous Quantities Such As time and mass, the compactification Creates symmetry-breaking (between the quaternion units), as an 8-fold structure Becomes 5-fold, and Chirality Because of the loss of independent information due to thereduction in sign variation, and the significant physical quantity must now Becomes angular momentum, Which is the only one structured at the Highest Level of the algebra - multivariate vector quaternion.
A significant aspect of the creation of the nilpotent That state is one of the quaternion incomplete sets of remains as well.This is the one That Appears as the complex factors on the energy or time word, and, by Analogy, on the weak component of charge.A fermion is in one sense, always interacting to come on this anomaly.Ultimately, complete ITS only way of doing this is by annihilation with the rest of the universe.However, a partial annihilation is Produced By Any of the processes of material aggregation Which resulted in a bosonic-type state.The mechanism Which results in the creation or destruction of (combined) from bosonic or write (uncombined) fermionic states is described as the harmonic oscillator.The harmonic oscillator is a classic Indications of aggregation or complexity in a system.That it is a statement no system is ever "closed".All fermions interact with eachother through discrete quantum transitions, E and p are never fixed.Lack of this closure is an expression of the second law of thermodynamics, and is the driver for all processes.
See Figure 7
A significant aspect of the quantum harmonic oscillator is the spin ½ Which is intrinsic to the fermionic state.The reason why it has been 1 ½ Rather Than Because The fermions can-only be defined at the sametime as vacuum ITS partner, and the combination can-in this sense be imagined as "double helical".The fermion / vacuum duality and spin ½ Also makes the weak interaction ultimately dipolar, with the classic inverse fourth-power force Which is Characteristic or aggregates systems, include the Van der Waals force of molecular cohesion (and Which gives stability Between Each twist of thedouble helix), and the hydrogen bonding Which connects together the double strands of DNA.

Figure 6.The 20 amino acid groups.(A) Standard chemical classification, (B) classification based on the middle base of codon triplets, the table shows the groups and the properties of a new fourth group.

What with the geometry of biology could be seen, is also found in algebra:
In the Dirac algebra (see box), we recognize what was already stated: the possible 4 ³ (64) combinations of bases for only 20 amino acids are used.In physics, we see that the Dirac algebra 64 units, 20 for the fermion state (plus fermion vacuum).The 64 units of re-writing system is 32 + and 32 - elements.DNA can be construed to codons 32 + and 32 - to contain codons.This is done by the two coils should be understood as mirror images, with T, A, G and C in one, and A, T, C and G in the other coil (item 64).We split the codons in two groups based on the central base in the codon triplet (purine or pyrimidine), then mirrored two groups (item 32).One encodes amino acid and is essentially non-polar.The other group is mainly polar.These two groups can be divided based on the base in the codon triplet, and that gives four groups (Order 16).The result is a re-drive system that uses four groups of amino acids with different polarity.Figure 6 shows the standard textbook story about the chemical organization of amino acids (A), adjacent (B) groups based on the central base in the codon triplet.Noticed that the placement of the amino acids in the groups is identical, corresponding to the chemical property.Here comes the division into four groups (Rowlands & Hill, 2003).The first group contains all four known start codons (decidedly non-polar).The third group was given polar (highly charged + / - charge).The fourth group contains the amino acids with extreme chemical behavior.These correlations were not found when the groups are based on the first or third codon (the latter was known, the third base is commonly known as the "redundant base).
Geometrical meaning of the writing Rewrite ALGEBRA
It is clear that the (re) writing system of direct importance for biology.The essence is the number of nested 3D structures in the construction of two units (purines A & G pyrimidines T & C), 4 units (4 bases: purines and pyrimidines), 8 units (double-stranded DNA), 16 units (right-handedand left hand strand, shown in transcription, mRNA)
The mRNA is transported to the ribosomes whose RNA in place holds, as is the case with the tRNA from the corresponding codon triplets in the message.There are four types of interaction between mRNA and tRNA, and between tRNA and their corresponding amino acids.This 4-way exchange makes possible the translation of all 64 codons to form a protein composed of 20 amino acids (item 32 and 64).
We see a skewed symmetry: the 8-fold symmetry split into a 5-fold symmetry of the icosahedron and dodecahedron.The double-stranded DNA (order 64) with its four bases is displayed in terms of a third order star tetrahedron with the correct number of triplets of the four bases, but also with the correct number of amino acids for making proteins, as wesee in nature.The skewed symmetry seen in the DNA double alpha, with its construction of pentagons in a spiral with a fixed direction.The geometric representation of this is shown in Fig.7.The algebraic form is shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2.Re-writing the Algebra.
Algebraic Complexity Units 3-dimensionality
Order 2 (1, -1) 0  3-D
Order 4 (1, -1)  (1, i1) 0.5  3-D
Order 8 (1, -1)  (1, i1)  (1, j1) 1  3-D
Order 16 (1, -1)  (1, i1)  (1, j1)  (1, i2) 1.5  3-D
Order 32 (1, -1)  (1, i1)  (1, j1)  (1, i2)  (1, j2) 2  3-D
Order 64 (1, -1)  (1, i1)  (1, j1)  (1, i2)  (1, j2)  (1, i3) 2.5  3-D

The connections in the algebra are called to connect to the connections in the geometry are shown.
Order 8 represents the second order tetrahedron with codon 8 triplets in the form of an octahedron and four amino acid tetrahedra.
Order 16 doubles this to a second order star tetrahedron, with 16 codon triplets in 2 octahedra and eight tetrahedra amino acid.
Order 32 is a third order tetrahedron by 32 codon triplets in 4 octahedra with 10 amino acid tetrahedra.
Order 64 is a third-order star tetrahedron codon 64 triplets into 20 amino acid tetrahedra and octahedra 8.

It shows not only the connections of form but also the consistency in training:
The stages of order 8 and order 32 are important 'step change'.This octahedron are respectively the first, and then the first spatial (3D) organization of 4 octahedra shown, in the form of a tetrahedron.

Order 16 and 64 show the significant correlation in time to see.Here we see the direct duplication.It is necessary here to look deeper because there is a hidden timeline, which only can be seen in the algebraic description.(The time relation between spatial structures is through a pseudo Calar (0.5  3-D) in the multi-variable vector system.) In the geometric view, we see this (Fig. 5) the repetition of a cubic form, as a parallel forThe 1.5  2.5  3-D and 3-D shapes in the image of a full 3D system to another.The movement of the DNA division (and cell division) has characteristics that we see in a relationship that is displaying a 5-fold structure characteristic shown in Order 32 and 64.(This is the pattern in the relationship at different levels of complexity can be seen. Ed.)

FIGURE 7.Re-writing the geometry in physics, DNA, transcription and translation.

We have here a direct link between the new physics and biology.
Re-writing the system has a dual 3D description needed, because the basic form in the shape re-written form mirrors.In the mathematical description the universe as "the mirror".In perfect symmetry, there is no difference.In mathematics, this is in the picture by basing the calculations on the number zero.This is a zero-mathematics, the 3D double to describe.Each object in the description should therefore be balanced with this turning point, in the wording it the rest of the universe (the "Vacuum").
In particle physics, this means that a Fermion (the smallest particle) interacting with the universe, so all the particles of the universe, and that together the next state of the Fermion determine.It also determines how the state of a fermion turns.This algebra is quite well.
Basically, the vacuum between the status for each state of the Fermion.Fermion It is what it is, and determine its formation.(This is also the (re) forming principle in DNA replication.) To describe this, we describe two areas are required: one in which the form exists, and that where the form is doubled.These two areas need to coincide.Therefore, this description will not take place in 3D, but in higher dimensions.(This also applies to the shape forming processes in our body.) Here we see 'static dimensions (the states), and "motile dimensions (the (re) formation).In physics, this is described in detail, the mathematics is designed to be able to do.There we see ('static') mass and charge, and ('dynamic') time and space.Other ways to describe the same amplitude and phase, or Fermion and Vacuum.
In biology is disposed to describe shapes in formation.Illert (1996) used fixed and moving frames of reference in his description of the formation of shells.It is the interaction with the environment (in physics and biology) the change is, and an additional 3D space can be described.In biology, we find here a basis for the integration of a self-replicating organism in its environment.The preservation of this integration, the system holistically (healthy).

In biology, we see the transcription and translation of the 64 codons of DNA in 20 amino acids as building blocks in the formation of protein.In physics we see, by analogy, the algebraic solution of 64 to 20 units in the formation of fermion nilpotent.These 20 are each composed of five groups of four, for example, the classification of amino acid into 4 groups.Typically, the total of 64 a group of four 'lost'.This is the turning point for the system in the replication.In mathematics, these are the mirror axes ( 1,  i).In biology the stop codons, which are not translated into amino acids.They are the endpoints for the translation.These are different for each species, in most of these genera are found 3 or 4.
In order 64 we see the ability to replicate.Geometrically where the cube is repeated at a higher level.
In the form of an icosahedron is to describe that relationship.In it we find 20 faces ("amino acids") composed of 20 tetrahedrons, each faces up 4 points from 3 (codon triplets).Together indicates that the entire group of 60 codons.(Without the final group of codons.)
Another way to describe that relationship in the form of a star-teraëder by clicking on each face of the icosahedron tetrahedron one place.We see a symmetry breaking of an 8-fold to 5-fold structure in the algebra, we can show as the shape of a 5-sided coherence of five tetrahedra.That form is also found in the icosahedron, which is divided into two such letter plus a ring of 10 tetrahedrons that connect them.Remarkably, this goes without half of a double helix form, with a twist angle of 10  7 º 12 'by the collapse of successive hooks dNTP pairs.This can be regarded as a (part of) a chain of icosahedron, coupled with their complementary internal dodecahedron.The faces of the dodecahedron which lie in a turn of the DNA double-strand 10 dNTPs would lie.
Surprisingly, such a disk 3 dNTPs even illumination, thus indicating a triplet codon.Figure 8 shows the typical 5-sided symmetry of the DNA shows.A top view of an icosahedron (two overlapping 5-sided discs) fit right into a computer image of a DNA.The same applies to the ring of 10 5-sided discs, which outline an icosahedral shape (Rowlands, 2007).Figure 8 B shows that this 8-fold symmetry split into two overlapping pentagons in a way similar to what the broken symmetry of the nilpotent fermionstructuur describes (a).

FIGURE 8.The icosahedron and pentagonal geometry of DNA.A: top view, B: side 1, C: side 2 D: A superposed on a DNA scattergraph E: Spiral of pentagonal disks in superposotie (incomplete icosahedral) in plan view, F: E superimposed on DNA scattergraph (with numbered internaldodecahedron planes to show the positions dNTP).

If we display an amino acid of a protein as a tetrahedron, the structure of the protein to be understood as a construction of the geometric relationship that has already been described.When amino acids structures are done in two ways: spirals and hexagonal grids (beta-folded layers).We find both in protein.Coils usually form protein alpha.DNA helix is an alpha helix, formed from bases with a characteristic direction.Proteins also have a direction: right-handed amino acid L-shape and their counterpart, the D-shaped cells usually toxic.Interestingly, the 5-angular form, mostly to do with movement, the six-corner structure (stationary).Pentameric proteins seen for example in the activation of bacterial flagella.Hexameric proteins seen in the cell wall and membranes.
DNA replication is to describe the same way as in physics is used in the re-writing operator.Algebraic formulas are shown in geometric form, which we recognize the structure of molecules.Conversely, this indicates that the nilpotent operator, the core of the re-write algebra, in very compact form describes the key elements of a natural process.In short (the underlying evidence is much more comprehensive): there is a replication function (design process) leading to a form characterized by a rotation with five-fold symmetry.

It Would Appear That The Fundamentals rewrite system, with ITS 5-component nilpotent operator displays in all the form Fundamental compactified units or natural process.Summa Rising a large body of work, it is Possible to show That, Defining a nilpotent operator for physics simultaneously leads to the creation of point singularity and discrete ness; compactification (from 8 units to 5) and Chirality (as a result of the loss of somesign degrees of freedom in the compactification), symmetry-breaking (between the 5 units) and spontaneous symmetry-breaking (Because Of The Chirality) (double) chopper city and angular momentum (with ITS double 3-D nature) irreversibility (becausesof the Chirality of the time and energy operators), 5-fold symmetry (Cubical ® spiral) and Hence The Fibonacci sequence, and a harmonic oscillator-based tendency to aggregation and complexity (Because Of The pseudo Calar nature of the time / energy term Neededfor nilpotency).

It seems to be a universal process.Algebra and geometry of the re-writing system is seen as just as good as biology and physics.Particularly for the genetic code and the protein-forming mechanism.What we see in physics as the interaction between Dirac Fermion and vacuum, we see in biology in the (re) writing of DNA.In physics, we see four basic units (space, time, mass and charge), 64 elements of algebra, the double helix, rotation, and 5-fold broken symmetry (E, p, m).In biology, we see four basic bases (A (denine), G (uanine), C (ytosine) and T (hymine)), 64 codon triplets, the double helix rotation or a 5-fold symmetry axis.

Figure 9.The integration of physics and biology

In summary, the algebraic and geometric forms of a 'universal write-rewrite system "is valid not only for physics but also for nature.In biology, we see this as what we might call the "Code of Nature" for the formation of life forms.
Freeland, S & L Hurst (1998) Journal of Molecular Evolution, 47, 238-48.
Freeland, S & L Hurst (2000) Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17, 511-8.
Rowlands, P & V Hill (2006) Fundamental Structures Applied to physics and biology, in K. Bowden (ed.), Conception (Proceedings of XXVII ANPA Conference, Cambridge, August 2005), 324-60.
Hill, V & P Rowlands (2006) Nature's Code, in K.Bowden (ed.), Foundations (Proceedings of XXVIII ANPA Conference, Cambridge, August 2006), 282-300.
Rowlands, B & P Diaz, A universal alphabet and rewrite system, arXiv: cs.OH/0209026.
Diaz, B & P Rowlands (2005) A computational path to the nilpotent Dirac equation, International Journal of Computing Anticipatory Systems, 16, 203-18.
C & R M. IllertSantilli (1996) Foundations of Conchology, Hadronic Press.
Rowlands, P (2007) Zero to Infinity, chapter 19, World Scientific, 2007 (ISBN-13: 978-981-270-914-1 and ISBN-10: 981-270-914-2).

Summary - The Code of Nature - Shapes and Formation of Life
DNA replication uses a write-rewrite system.In quantum physics to describe the formation of a material write-rewrite algebra used.This article brings together physics and biology, and uses the relationship as is shown in geometric shapes to ensure consistency in the formation of molecules to explain.It is clear that the algebra is to see what is found in biology: there is a reason why the nature of the 64 possible amino acids, only 20 are used for the production of protein.Direction is an important factor, as polarization.The text presents a classification of amino acids based on the connections in the quantum theory can be found.It seems that the logic of biology is explained here.

Summary - Nature's Code - Integration of Form and Information
DNA masseuses a write-rewrite system.Quantum physics makes use of a write-rewrite algebra.Findings of this article Integrates biology and physics, Using geometry to point out relationships found in nature and physics.This Is Used to describe the formation of molecules of life.Herein it Becomes clear why natural therapists only 20 or 64 amino acids the Possible That can-DNA encode for: Chirality and polarity are important.The text propos©es a classification of amino acids Which makes this clear, and explain how geometry Can Be Used to Simplify the Understanding of the complexification of amino acids or proteins in the forming.This Appears to explain the logic in biology.

Key Words
Biology, Logic, Geometry, Amino Acid, Protein formation, Nilpotent Operator

The Authors:
Vanessa Hill, genetic biologist, light touch Genetics, World's End Studios, 132-134 Lots Road, SW10 0RJ, UK.e-mail:
Peter Rowlands, Quantum Physicist, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Oxford Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZE, UK.Email

[Welcome] [Integral Health Care] [mEducation] [Contagious Health] [Health by Design] [Handbook] [Therapy Tutors] [Self Assured] [Insights] [Gallery]